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Red Junglefowl
(Gallus gallus)

(ASNSW Meeting - October 2016)
(Printable Version - PDF file - Free Adobe Reader download)

Graeme Phipps: Without a doubt, junglefowl (chickens), are the most important animal to humans and so they are worthy of attention. Zach Mackenzie is working on the husbandry guidelines for this species and it is very important because; in the zoo industry, the top 10 species that are kept by most zoos in the world include junglefowl and there's no husbandry guidelines on them. Zoos might think they are just chickens so they don't need any, but it's not that simple, so over to you Zach.

Presentation by Zachary Mackenzie

Introduction
Red junglefowl subspecies
Distribution and habitat
Trapping
Introduction to other islands
Close relatives
Other species
Red junglefowl in Australian Aviculture
Making the comparison - general
Making the comparison - my birds
Selecting stock
Conclusion

Introduction

Following up on what Graeme has just said, yes, they may seem like just chickens, but they are in fact a species of pheasant and they should be treated as such. The Red Jungle Pheasant is my guidelines species and at present they are the only wild species in Australian aviculture and zoos; and as Graeme said, they are one of the top 10 kept birds in the world under a zoo basis.

They are classified as LC (least concern) on the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) listing. However, they are one of the few species that goes beyond that a little because they are facing genetic extinction in the wild.

Being native to Asia, China and parts of India (mostly third world countries), they meet villagers and therefore meet domestic fowl at the edges of villages; which taints a lot of the wild strains with blood from basically the same species that is 8,000 years in advance, which is the domestic chicken. The result is that village chickens carry the blood lines back into the forest and you lose the purity of the bird.

Why is this important?

Well, I think it is important because it is one less pure strain living on the planet and when you do see them in their pure form, they are very different to poultry. So yes, they should be included as a pheasant, not as a means of poultry. They are the same family as pheasants, they are Phasianidae, and should be treated as such.

Red junglefowl (male ad female) and a harem (bottom right corner)Figure 1.  Red junglefowl (male and female) and a harem (bottom right corner)

The harem in the bottom right-hand corner in Figure 1 (above) is a typical group of six females and three cock birds. Unlike domestic fowl, they are not as aggressive. A few cock birds will usually cater to a large group of hens. That photo was taken in Singapore of a group in the wild. So obviously, Singapore is quite a developed city and somehow, they are still thriving. The larger photo in the background is of a pair down at my place. I have a little project going on the side where I've tried to release them to see if I can bring them back to the original Phasianidae.

Red junglefowl subspecies

There are five subspecies; six including all domestic chickens. This literally includes every domestic chicken, e.g. game fowl, everything, poultry basically. Domestic poultry started the domestication process 8,000 years ago. From recent lineage work, unlike DNA, it has been found that it was mostly in Europe. It started in Asia and the birds were probably taken across by European settlers who started domesticating them for their meat and eggs. It is not confirmed that the Red junglefowl is its sole wild ancestor, but obviously from looking at it, it is either one of them or perhaps also the Grey junglefowl.

They all come under the species of junglefowl.

Left to right (cock at the top and hen below): Indian junglefowl Gallus gallus murghi, Indian junglefowl Gallus gallus murghi and Burmese junglefowl Gallus gallus spadiceus. Figure 2.  Left to right (cock at the top and hen below): Indian junglefowl Gallus gallus murghi,
Indian junglefowl Gallus gallus murghi and Burmese junglefowl Gallus gallus spadiceus

The two cock birds on the left are both Indian junglefowl. The birds with the white ear lappets being a southern variant of the Indian junglefowl. Within Australia (especially within pheasant and poultry groups), having white lappets is a well-known trait of having Indian junglefowl. Although, it is not always the case, because some of the other subspecies also have the white lappets. The northern Indian junglefowl don't have the lappets at all in the wild. The other subspecies on the far right is the Burmese junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus). It is hard to identify the females. The Burmese female is a little bit lighter and she has more of a fantail. She is a little bit bigger and buffer and the white lappet is kind of a creamy colour. They are also a little bit taller.

So, that is the three species that we originally imported to Australia.

Globally, America probably has the best blood lines of junglefowl, they take it more seriously and they have a lot more exotic pheasant species than we have to play with. I should probably also tie it in that I have a big interest in pheasants as well and I think that they're very poorly presented in Australian aviculture. They're not poultry, they're not domestic birds at all. Most of them are endangered, vulnerable or threatened in the wild. We don't know much about their diet or behaviour in the wild because most are native to third world countries and live very secretive lives. It would be nice to see a lot more effort put into pheasants, especially in more urban areas. I think that often the notion is that they are some sort of poultry, but pheasants don't make any sound at all really; just very small little whistles and clucks, no crowing. Nothing that is offensive anyway and they are not messy like domestic poultry that smell, or anything like that.

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Distribution and habitat

Typical habitat of wild junglefowl (left), distribution (top right) and a junglefowl cock (bottom right) which is probably not a pure bird.Figure 3. Typical habitat of wild junglefowl (left), distribution (top right) and
a junglefowl cock (bottom right) which is probably not a pure bird.

The distribution of the Red junglefowl is throughout large parts of Asia. In its native range it is found in India, Singapore, China, and Northern Malaysia. The photo on the left is typical habitat. I think it is interesting to note that chickens, which are usually seen as more of a barnyard open area sort of bird, are originally from lush jungle areas in very tropical countries; usually bamboo forests, rainforests, wet forests and that sort of thing. That's a cock bird at the bottom right. Probably not a pure bird; a lot of birds in Singapore aren't pure because it is quite a developed country and lot of blood lines have been lost.

Bamboo groves are typical of its habitat and with quite a lot of people they're often called the bamboo fowl, because bamboo is basically the best plant to pair with them. It is a good plant to have in aviculture because it is very hardy. In the wild it is good because its tall and stiff and so they can roost on it. They can fly up and just bend the culm over and no ground dwelling predators are going to get to them. It is quite a thick covering plant so it would help guard them from aerial predators as well. It is probably good to note as well (and anyone that has had poultry would know) that chickens aren't the best at having any kind of defences, so they need to be wary. Wild junglefowl are very wary birds.

Another thing to note is that junglefowl are one of the only group of pheasants that travel in a flock. Most pheasants are solitary males looking for females all the time; for their whole life. Junglefowl cock birds travel in a harem of up to 10 females and as I said before, you can have more than one male. They don't fight and brutally kill each other like a lot of domestic fowl.

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Trapping

They live in the thick forest throughout most of the day because they are very heavily trapped. The Green junglefowl and the other four species that I am about show you, are also heavily trapped. You will find that the Asian community in Australia who have birds, usually have the best junglefowl because they know exactly what they are looking at and I think that having the pure birds is considered good luck. If you look online, you will find videos of how to trap them and so they are a very wary bird. They only come out into open fields to feed early in the morning and then late in the evening, maybe on the edges of forests, or human cultivation, much like you'd expect a normal fowl to do.

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Introduction to other islands

They have also been introduced more than any other species of pheasants to many other islands, including Australia. There was a population on Flinders Island up north which has been eradicated (probably not a pure population anyway). There are large populations on the Hawaiian Islands and one of the most viable populations is on the Cocas Islands off Western Australia, which is an Australian managed territory in the Indian Ocean. However, the flora and fauna on the Cocas Islands is counted as international, so the way it works with imports is a little bit complicated. It is good to note that the Cocas Island populations are very pure and have been there for hundreds of years. They have both the Red junglefowl and the Green junglefowl.

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Close relatives

Their closest relatives are the gallopheasants (genus Lophura) which are a lot purer and translates to anyone who knows them as Silver pheasants, Nepal Kalij pheasants, Swinehoe’s pheasants. They are their closet relatives and if you compare them for a minute you'll notice, especially in the hens, that they look a little bit similar. They have that low set brown tail, but they don't have exactly similar habits in relation to travelling in flocks, etc. Structurally however, they are much the same.

Kali Pheasant (left) and an illustration demonstrating how to distinguish between a pure jungelfowl and a tdomeestic fowl (right)Figure 4. Kalij Pheasant (left) and an illustration demonstrating how to distinguish
between a pure junglefowl and a domestic fowl (right)

The illustration on the right (above) is just a quick diagram that I have drawn up to show you the length of a full grown junglefowl cock bird at 720mm. I have also included this illustration to show you how to distinguish between the pure junglefowl and the domestic fowl. You'll notice that the female has quite a low set tail. With a lot of domestic fowl the tail is upright and erect and the head also swings upright a bit. If you look at the Kalij pheasant, you will get the notion of how the female should look. You will notice that the female junglefowl does not have a crest. Most breeds of domestic hens have a comb of some sort and so that is usually a distinguishing feature that you don't have with the pure junglefowl. A lot of Australian junglefowl have combs. The hens have very small combs and they shouldn't, which is obviously evidence that they been diluted at some point in time. It is a lot harder to find a pure hen bird; and with the cock bird, sometimes the plumage covers their body structure a little bit so it's a bit hard to tell. The hen also has bare skin around its face which is a kind of brownish pink. It is not red and not as luscious as the skin around the face of the domestic fowl.

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Other species

Sri Lankan junglefowl (Gallus lafayettii)

The Sri Lankan junglefowl is quite a stunning species.

Sri Lankan junglefowl (Gallus lafayettii)Figure 5.  Sri Lankan junglefowl (Gallus lafayettii)
cock bird (top) and hen (bottom)

I have inserted a few photos of other species of junglefowl to give you an idea of their closest relatives. Also, because these species have never been domesticated and it is easy to see how they are supposed to look.

The junglefowl on the right is native to Sri Lanka. There is quite a small population, it is however listed as LC (least concern), so the populations are quite good.

I personally really like this species. I think the males look brilliant with that bright yellow to the comb and their tail is a lot longer than that of the Red junglefowl. The tail is a bright metallic-like purple, not greenish like the Red junglefowl.

The female on the right is obviously a good example of a hen that does not have a comb and obviously having the skin, the wattle and the comb on a female in domestic poultry, is something that has come with domestication.

Green junglefowl (Gallus Varius)

The Green junglefowl is my favourite species. I would love to have these at home. The skin on the cock bird, the comb and the wattle is very strangely shaped. This is Gallus varius, the Green junglefowl that is native to Java.

Green junglefowl (Gallus varius) cock birds with the hen top rightFigure 6.  Green junglefowl (Gallus varius) cock birds with the hen top right

The Green junglefowl is listed as threatened in the wild. These birds have a high religious status, especially in Indonesia, and so they're trapped. If anyone has been to parts of Asia, you often see they trap male songbirds and have them in small bamboo cages; and they do the same with the Green junglefowl. I think the crow that they emit is sacred in some way and so they are being wiped out. There is however, a healthy population on the Cocas Islands that we would love to have imported for Australian aviculturists to work with.

Another interesting point with this species is that it is a beach species, even though it is a chicken. They eat a lot of crustaceans. In Indonesia, where you have lush forests that come right down and meet with tropical beaches, they will often wander onto the beaches and be eating out of the rock pools; which I think is characteristically very cool. They are absolutely stunning.

The female looks very similar to the Sri Lankan junglefowl. Like any pheasant, the female is pretty drab and they all look very similar. But I think it is good to have a contrast with all the different females because you can see how similar they're to other pheasants and you really get the mindset that these birds are in fact a species of pheasant, they are not domestic chickens.

Grey junglefowl (Gallus Sonneratii)

The last species is the Grey junglefowl which is native to most of India.

Grey junglefowl (Gallus Sonneratii) cock birdsFigure 7.  Grey junglefowl (Gallus Sonneratii) cock birds
Grey junglefowl henFigure 8.  Grey junglefowl hen

This species looks characteristically like a lot of domestic chickens. It's a little bit of a debatable topic that this species was hybridised with the Red junglefowl to get to the domestic fowl that we have today. Naturally in the wild they do overlap and hybridise and again, the hybrid that they produce is sacred and so you don't ever see them because they are usually trapped.

It is a very pretty bird and very unusual, especially the female. She has different skin around the face. It is all oscillated with little purple warts, etc. It looks pretty weird and definitely a bit different.

It is another species that is absent from Australian aviculture.

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Red junglefowl in Australian aviculture

Red junglefowl in an Australian collection (top right), hen in a soft release flight (bottom left), Red junglefowl (Gallus murghi) in an eclipse plumage (bottom right)Figure 9.  Red junglefowl in an Australian collection (top right), hen in a soft release flight (bottom left),
Red junglefowl (Gallus murghi) in an eclipse plumage (bottom right)

The bird on the top right is a bird in an Australian collection. The bird on the bottom left is one of my hens in a soft release flight. She isn't a pure bird; she does have a little bit of crest going on there. It is almost impossible to find pure junglefowl. There are very, very few left in this country. I have had a little bit of luck, but it's just been by chance. A lot of people who have them aren't usually on the bird scene.

The Pheasant and Waterfowl Society has a stud book for this species, but again, when I chase up a lot of the breeders that have this species you get a little bit disappointed because they are definitely not pure birds.

It is important to note that the bird on the bottom right is a Red junglefowl too. In the wild that's a bird in India (Gallus murghi) that is an eclipse plumage. So just like our fairy wrens in Australia they lose the blue colour out of breeding season. Chickens historically do the same but that was quickly lost with domestication. True junglefowl should go through an eclipse plumage where they lose all their hackles like a normal pheasant which moults all that brilliant plumage like you can see in the photo on the top left. The hackles and the mantle are replaced by the black in the off season. Recently I viewed some birds that were approaching that, that did still have a partial eclipse moult; which is very exciting.

The reason that I have hens (like the hen on the bottom left) that I know are not quite pure, is because I am experimenting a little bit.

The pair in the photo top left are a pair of chickens that look very much like junglefowl and at least they are wild on the Hawaiian island of Kauai. Hawaiian Islands lack any natural predators and they have a lot of introduced species there that are doing quite well. Chickens have been one. It seems like a bit of story, but there was a chicken farm and a cyclone and the chicken factory was lost. All the chickens went feral on this island. Most were leghorns, so there was a huge white poultry population with massive legs, massive spurs and massive combs. The hens were huge too. Over generations they have actually reduced back to these birds (top left) which I am sure to most people just look like the junglefowl I have been carrying on about for the last 10 minutes.

The Mystery of Kauai’s Thousands of Feral Chickens The Hawaiian Islands are a master class in introduced animals, and on the island of Kauai, the most obvious subject is chickens. Thousands of feral chickens roam the island with no natural predators. A new study seeks to answer these questions: what are they doing there, and what can they teach us?

Invasive Feral Chickens Provide Evolutionary Insights "It is crucial that we identify and conserve the genetic variation that still remains in the Red Junglefowl. This variation could soon be essential for the improvement or evolutionary rescue of commercial chicken breeds," said Gering, a postdoctoral research associate in the Department of Zoology.

Are feral chickens protected? If so, why? 05/05/2003 11:33 PM. Is it true that feral chickens are protected? If so, why? On Kauai are there any pure blood line descendants of the original Red Jungle Fowl, Moa (Gallus gallus) brought in by the Polynesians? Are there any programs studying this introduced species in Hawaii? I read that the Bishop Museum has kahili made from the feathers of these birds? Can they be bred by private individuals?

That is a little bit exciting and a little bit interesting to me because I feel like after generations back in the wild there was reverse evolution. Darwin prompted the theory that some animals would basically reverse evolution and revert to their phenotypes in their original type of habitats. So, these birds have gone and they have reduced dramatically in size; you can't see in the photo (top left Figure 9) because it's not a good view of the hen, but she's not got a lot going on in the face and she's the right colour, and so is the cock bird. Obviously not completely pure birds but in that short amount of time to see them reduced back to something that looks close to it, is very intriguing for me.

I keep a few birds that have a lot of the characteristics like this hen bird. A lot of my hen birds have been diluted at some point, they have the right sort of stature and they have just got the cone that is mucking them up a little bit. However, one thing that I noticed is that they are not big and fat and kind of dozy like chickens. They are very lean and agile flyers. I am trying to soft release these birds into an enclosed part of my property. I am lucky to live down the coast where it's a sort of temperate rainforest type of climate. I have been trying to mimic the sort of habitat as it would be in Asia to see if over a couple of generations, if they would revert, especially in stature and body shape, just from living a wild life. I think also it has a lot to do with diet. In the wild back in Asia junglefowl naturally eat a lot of fruit, which obviously when you keep chickens you are just feeding them layer pellets and corn. They like fruit and a lot of invertebrate matter. There's not a lot of grain feed eaters, so that probably has something to do with it as well, with the increase in size.

The cock bird in the top right corner belongs to a breeder in Queensland. It is a good example of a junglefowl and that bird is mainly an Indian junglefowl. I think that now, with the genetic diversity that we have, it's more about just picking characteristics and determining if it's a true junglefowl or not. Not worrying about the subspecies too much because there are a lot people who have no idea what they are looking at and they are all getting mucked up anyway. It's also probably important to know that I think in about the last 3 or 4 years, they have been added to the Australian Poultry Standards (junglefowl breeds), which is basically just birds like this that exhibit the natural colouration. This has been absolutely detrimental to the species because it propagandas misinformation of what the bird should look like to a show standard, not what they should look like as a pheasant; which has really damaged the little bit of genetic diversity we've got left. It has been a bit of shame.

A Monograph of the Pheasants, Volume 2, by William Beebe published in 1921Figure 10. By George Edward Lodge – A Monograph of the Pheasants, Voume 2 by William Beebe (Red Junglefowl)

In A Monograph of the Pheasants, Volume 2, by William Beebe published in 1921, Dr Beebe includes a study of this species over a couple of years in Asia which shows that the species increased in size even over only two to three generations in captivity. They went to villages where they had junglefowl and had bred them a couple of times. Even then, the hens would start to swell up a little bit in the face. So maybe they are a species that is prone to mutating a little bit when fed different diets, etc. (Junglefowl (Gallus) pages 167 to the end of the volume II on page 269).

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Making the comparison - general

Red junglefowl cock bird (top left), Wild Red junglefowl cock bird in Northern India (top right) and Red junglefowl hen (bottom right) is a bird in the wild in Northern India. The birds (bottom left) are kept on the Pheasant and Waterfowl Society Studbook by a breeder in Queensland.Figure 11. Red junglefowl cock bird (top left), Wild Red junglefowl cock bird in Northern India (top right)
and Red junglefowl hen (bottom right) is a bird in the wild in Northern India. The birds (bottom left)
are kept on the Pheasant and Waterfowl Society Studbook by a breeder in Queensland.

The cock bird (top left) is a bird in Taronga Zoo. Taronga carries a studbook for this species. They've been breeding them in an Indian exhibit with Indian spotted deer (Chital). The bird on the right is a wild bird in Northern India. You can clearly see, even though the colour is quite similar and the bird (top left) is very richly coloured, that something has definitely changed in that amount of time. The bird (top right) is much more ornate, the head is much smaller, the hackles come straight out and the tail is a little lower. It is a more pheasant shaped bird. The bird (top left) is more characteristic of the domestic rooster in its stature. It is tall, robust and its neck is quite thick. Its head is obviously quite large and it is much more upright rather than level. The hen bird bottom right is a bird in the wild in Northern India. As you can see she has a little bit of upper crest there and a bare face with really defined lines.

The birds (bottom left) are kept on the Pheasant and Waterfowl Society Studbook by a breeder in Queensland. They are nice looking birds but obviously genetic-wise they are pointless. The hen has been diluted at some point in time and there is way too much going on there in the face. They are really just chickens. The cock birds are always really hard to tell, but you can see by the robust stature and the coarseness of the neck and head; and these birds don't go through an eclipse plumage. They are obviously not pure birds.

It's also important to note that Old English game fowl, which is a domestic breed of poultry from England, still go through an eclipse plumage where they lose a lot of their ornate plumage and they go black around the head and neck.

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Making the comparison – my birds

Red junglefowl (Gallus gallus murghi) These are some of my birds compared to the other Red junglefowl (Figure 12). I have really put a lot of effort into trying to select birds with the right characteristics and then including those birds in my breeding programme.

The bird (top right) is a bird in Southern Indian that is going through some elephant poo or something like that The other birds are some birds at my house. Bottom right is a young cock bird I was about to soft release. The bird on the left is one that I has been release and is living in the wild. Figure 12. The bird (top right) is a bird in Southern Indian that is going through some elephant poo or something like
that. The other birds are some birds at my house. Bottom right is a young cock bird I was about to soft release.
The bird on the left is one that I has been release and is living in the wild.

The bird (top right) is a bird in Southern Indian that is going through some elephant poo or something like that. The other birds are some birds at my house.

Bottom right is a young cock bird I was about to soft release. The bird on the left is one that I have released that is living wild and I am pretty happy with the progress over a few generations.

I know you must be thinking that you are looking at the same thing over and over; but when you have been living and breeding these birds for your husbandry manual, for a long time, you do get really fixated on what you after and what characteristics you are looking for.

The young cock bird (bottom right) has gone through a partial eclipse. You can see that it's dark. This is a cock bird I am quite happy with. I am really looking for this smaller skull size that you can see that this bird has. I have lost some birds and kept the skulls and I have tried to dry them out so that I can compare them. That's how fixated I am. So yes, it would be great to get in new blood lines, especially from Cocas Islands; and I am going to get into that a little bit more.

In the photo below on the left (Figure 13) are more of my birds. The hen has no comb and is quite a good hen. I have the Indian junglefowl. They are the southern race without the white lappets (Gallus gallus murghi). The birds in the photo (bottom right) are wild birds. It is a good comparison and especially with the hens. You can see the difference in the female. The birds (top right) are those of a different breeder up in Queensland. He's doing quite well with them. These are some young ones he has produced and you can see the stature of the hens. It's not as upright. So, we definitely have some good blood lines in Australia that are pretty close to the original blood lines.

Indian Junglefowl, the southern race without the white lappets (Gallus gallus murghi) Figure 13. Indian Junglefowl, the southern race without the white lappets (Gallus gallus murghi)

Burmese junglefowl (subspecies Gallus spadiceus)

Burmese junglefowl (subspecies Gallus spadiceus) Figure 14. Burmese junglefowl (subspecies Gallus spadiceus)

The bird in the photo top right (Figure 14) is a wild Burmese cock bird. The birds bottom right are also Burmese Cock birds. They are from Melbourne Zoo and friends of mine who've managed to purchase some of their blood lines privately are trying to work with them. He does have some birds that look kind of promising and true to the type, but as you can see they have white lappets; which is a bit annoying. Not all the subspecies have white lappets. But still then, they are looking pretty similar. Their stature is a little bit upright and the tail.

On the left (Figure 14) is an easy comparison of a flying junglefowl in the wild and a domestic rooster flying. You can see the huge difference that domestication brings across. The bird at the top looks like a bird and the bird at the bottom is a chicken. That's where I want you to make the difference. Streamline, just like a pheasant flying, if you have seen ring neck pheasants flying, that it is how they look, junglefowl are part of the same family and should be treated the same.

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Selecting stock

In selecting stock is it possible to revert to the original phenotype?

These are some of the birds that I have been working with (Figure 15).

Some of the birds that Zac has been working with.Figure 15. Some of the birds that Zach has been working with.

The hen on the right is one of the hens I have running wild at my place. She has given me a lot of satisfaction. As you can see I am pretty happy with the way they're going and she looks a little bit more like a pheasant, something more than a chicken. I always ask visitors when they come, how do you like that bird?... and they say oh yes, what is it? If they don't think it's a chicken straight away I'm like YES!  Because that is what I want.

The bird on the left is a cock bird that is living wild at my place, which is pretty good. The insert is of some young birds in a soft release pen. The head of the cock bird is smaller and I am trying to work with a smaller body size and especially the legs as well. You'll notice with domestic fowl they have really thick legs and the crow is also different. Everyone knows what a rooster sounds like when it crows. True junglefowl only have a one syllable crow which is an easy giveaway in relation to the purity of the bird. When I first started working with the bloodline with this hen she had a few nodules there and three generations later I have lost that.

Conclusion

I think it is really important that with a bird that has already been imported here, a bird that is in the top 10 most common kept birds in zoos globally, if they are not pure birds; what is the point of keeping studbooks for a species that's genetically impure? I just don't see the point.

There are birds that have been introduced on off shore islands that are probably going to be euthanized soon due to eradication of introduced species programmes, that could be used in breeding programmes. They are definitely not getting any attention in Asia or taken seriously, because they are classified as least concern. Of course they are least concern, it is a chicken. Chickens are the most numerous living thing on the planet, but genetically we may lose this species as a pheasant. I think that is kind of sad and vastly disrespectful for a bird that has given us so much in eggs and meat and production, and that sort of thing.

They are looking at euthanizing the populations of junglefowl that they have on the Cocas Islands because there is an endemic subspecies of the buff-banded rail (Gallirallus philippensis andrewsi) there which is endangered. They think that the Green junglefowl (which I showed you earlier with the coloured comb), is a direct competitor because it's feeding along the shorelines the same as the buff-banded rail. So, they want to wipe all the junglefowl off the island, which would be a huge shame. The Cocas Islands are managed by the Australian Government, and we could really use the genetic diversity that they have there. If we pledged a case that's viable enough, reasoning as to why we need to be including them in our breeding programmes and especially because the Green junglefowl is ICUN classified as a threatened species, hopefully something will come about and something will come from my work with the bird. Thanks for looking at the birds.

Graeme:  Pheasants.

Zach:  Pheasants, yes.

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